Astronomy & Space

Japanese spacecraft snags second pattern from asteroid – Astronomy Now

July 12, 2019 • By
A digicam on-board Hayabusa 2 exhibits the spacecraft’s sampler horn contacting the asteroid’s floor, then kicking up rocky particles after firing a sampling projectile. Credit score: JAXA

Scientists celebrated one other success with Japan’s Hayabusa 2 spacecraft on 11 July when the robotic explorer completed a second pinpoint touch-and-go touchdown on asteroid Ryugu, this time to gather a pattern of pristine mud and rock excavated by an explosive impactor earlier this 12 months.

Utilizing rocket thrusters to regulate its descent, and guided by a laser vary finder, Hayabusa 2 glacially approached Ryugu on autopilot, slowing to a relative velocity of about 10 centimetres per second (4-inches per second) within the ultimate section of the touchdown.

Hayabusa 2 manoeuvred over a vibrant navigation help launched on the asteroid’s floor earlier this 12 months to mark the touchdown website, then went in for the ultimate descent, with the probe’s sampling horn extending from the entrance of the spacecraft.

Telemetry information and imagery downlinked from Hayabusa 2 present the spacecraft briefly touched down on the asteroid at 0106 GMT (10:06 a.m. Japan Commonplace Time), and started climbing away from Ryugu seconds later, pulsing its thrusters to counteract the 900-meter-wide (half-mile-wide) asteroid’s feeble gravity.

At a press convention round 4 hours later, officers hailed the temporary touchdown as an ideal success, following the mission’s first touch-and-go touchdown on Ryugu in February.

“Hayabusa 2 today executed a second touchdown, and we were able to obtain (information about) the history of the Solar System,” stated Yuichi Tsuda, Hayabusa 2’s mission supervisor on the Japan Aerospace Exploration Company.

Floor groups cheered when information streaming again from the spacecraft, at the moment orbiting the solar in lock-step with Ryugu greater than 244 million kilometres (151 million miles) from Earth, confirmed the landing.

Launched in December 2014, Hayabusa 2 is Japan’s mission to journey to an asteroid and gather samples for return to Earth. Scientists are desirous to analyse specimens from Ryugu, a darkish asteroid wealthy in carbon, a important constructing block of life.

Researchers will examine the samples for clues in regards to the formation of the Photo voltaic System 4.6 billion years in the past, and maybe the origin of water and life on Earth.

Yuichi Tsuda, Hayabusa 2’s mission supervisor, speaks with reporters Thursday. Credit score: JAXA

Mission managers final month determined to ship Hayabusa 2 on a second sampling run to collect bits of rock and dirt from a second location on Ryugu, offering scientists with extra different supplies to look at when the mission returns to Earth late subsequent 12 months.

Hayabusa 2’s sampling mechanism works by firing a steel bullet into the asteroid as soon as the probe’s sampler horn contacts the floor. The projectile is designed to pressure bits of rock and dirt via the sampler horn into a group chamber inside spacecraft.

Takanao Saiki, Hayabusa 2’s mission engineer and flight director at JAXA, informed reporters in a press briefing Thursday that information downlinked by the spacecraft confirmed the temperature rose within the projectile’s firing mechanism on the time of touchdown, suggesting the system functioned as supposed.

Three pictures taken by a digicam on-board Hayabusa 2 confirmed the sampling horn contacting the asteroid, then violently blasting away particles from the floor. Numerous tiny asteroid fragments had been seen across the spacecraft within the ultimate snapshot within the three-image sequence launched by JAXA.

“The third picture is really amazing,” stated Makoto Yoshikawa, Hayabusa 2’s mission supervisor “It’s really awesome, a large amount of chips of rocks are flying off.”

“This is a wonderful picture, I think,” Tsuda stated. “Hayabusa 2 touched the surface of Ryugu, so this is evidence.”

A distinct view of the touchdown website taken by Hayabusa 2’s navigation digicam exhibits a cloud of particles left behind moments after the spacecraft took off from the asteroid.

Hayabusa 2’s navigation digicam recorded this view of the spacecraft’s touchdown website moments after the touch-and-go maneuver, exhibiting a cloud of particles left in its wake. Credit score: JAXA, College of Tokyo, Kochi College, Rikkyo College, Nagoya College, Chiba Institute of Know-how, Meiji College, College of Aizu and AIST

With its second and ultimate pattern assortment full, Hayabusa 2 began to climb again to a “home position” roughly 20 kilometres (12 miles) from the asteroid. The spacecraft closed the lid to the pattern catcher machine containing the asteroid pay grime, and floor groups will later ship instructions to seal it contained in the re-entry canister that may carry the fabric via Earth’s environment on the finish of the mission.

“There’s nothing I need to complain about, everything moved perfectly,” Tsuda stated via a translator. “It was a perfect operation, so … it’s a 1,000 score out of 100.”

Not solely did the specimens gathered Wednesday come from a special location on Ryugu than the primary sampling run, scientists say the newly-captured supplies originated from beneath the asteroid’s floor, the place they might have escaped radiation and different house weathering results for billions of years.

The pristine samples had been uncovered throughout a daring, unprecedented bombing run by the Hayabusa 2 spacecraft in April. The probe deployed an explosive cost to fireplace into the asteroid at excessive velocity, carving a recent crater and ejecting buried supplies across the affect website, ripe for retrieval by Hayabusa 2.

“We decided to obtain the samples in this particular area so that we would be able to sample the subsurface materials … and because our operation was perfectly conducted, therefore, we can observe that we obtained some subsurface samples,” stated Seiichiro Watanabe, Hayabusa 2’s mission scientist from Nagoya College.

“Bringing the subsurface materials (back to Earth) will be something no other country can do in the coming 20 years or so,” Watanabe stated.

Hayabusa 2’s sampler provider has three chambers to separate supplies gathered from every touchdown. Officers determined to press forward with the second sampling run after assessing the scientific advantages and engineering dangers of the maneuver, however with two samples now on-board the spacecraft, mission managers don’t plan to aim a 3rd sampling run.

Artist’s idea of the Hayabusa 2 spacecraft touching down on asteroid Ryugu. Credit score: JAXA/Akihiro Ikeshita

Whereas Hayabusa 2 explores Ryugu, NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission is surveying asteroid Bennu earlier than shifting in to gather a pattern there in 2020 for return to scientists on Earth in 2023.

OSIRIS-REx is designed to convey dwelling a minimum of 60 grammes (2.1 ounces) of samples from Bennu, considerably greater than Hayabusa 2. However OSIRIS-REx is just anticipated to gather a single pattern from one location on Bennu’s floor.

NASA and JAXA agreed in 2014 to share their asteroid samples.

Named for a dragon’s palace in a well-known Japanese fairy story, asteroid Ryugu completes one circuit of the Solar each 1.three years. Its path briefly brings it inside Earth’s orbit, making Ryugu a probably hazardous asteroid.

The orbit additionally made Ryugu a lovely candidate for a pattern return mission.

The Hayabusa 2 spacecraft arrived at Ryugu in June 2018, and deployed three cell scouts to hop across the asteroid’s floor final September and October, reaching one other first in house exploration.

Hayabusa 2 will depart Ryugu in November or December and hearth its ion engines to move for Earth, the place it would launch a re-entry capsule protected by a warmth protect to land in Australia in December 2020.

“We have captured the samples,” Tsuda stated. “We must make sure that it comes back to Earth, so we need to continue with the operations properly.”

Electronic mail the creator.

Comply with Stephen Clark on Twitter: @StephenClark1.